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Livelihood vulnerability and adaptation strategies of coastal areas in the face of climate change in Bangladesh: A literature review

Hossain, M.N., et al. | Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | 2021

Abstract

Bangladesh is one of the world’s most vulnerable countries to climate change because of its flat and low-lying topography. The country’s coastal areas are most susceptible to river erosion, flooding, tropical cyclones, salinity intrusion, and tidal surges. Natural and human-induced hazards and disasters have a ripple effect on the ecosystem, resulting in the loss of human lives, property, and the valuable resources needed for human subsistence. The review summarizes the current literature, highlighting the vulnerability index, local-level adaptation strategies, and future research work. The reviewed literature
has reported common hazards like tropical cyclones and tidal waves that can cause tidal floods and riverbank erosion, all of which have a high-to-medium impact on the structure of homes, income, wealth, and employment. Agriculture is the most vulnerable sector in the coastal areas. Aquaculture, shrimp, open-water fish collection, and infrastructure are all vulnerable to disasters in coastal areas. The widely used vulnerability indexes are Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI), Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) and principal components (PCs) reported in the literature. The local level adaptation strategy is to build the house on high land using bamboo and wood. The pond/gher bound ponds by the net to protect fish from the overflow water, put soil on the gher dike, and sell fish as soon as possible. Diseases of shrimp viruses and white fishes use calcium carbonate, fertilizer, and potash alum as preventative measures. The farmer converted their agricultural land into gher for fish/shrimp cultivation. The community stored/harvested rainwater in a plastic pot or soil pot. The study results will help the government with landscape planning and a disaster-prevention plan at the local level