Nature-based solutions: lessons from around the world| Maritime Engineering Journal | 2016 | Peer Reviewed | Review | https://doi.org/10.1680/jmaen.15.00027
This paper considers an emerging group of coastal management approaches which offer the potential to reduce coastal flood and erosion risks whilst also providing nature conservation, aesthetic and amenity benefits. These solutions mimic the characteristics of natural features, but are enhanced or created by man to provide specific services such as wave energy dissipation and erosion reduction. Such approaches can include beaches, dunes, saltmarshes, mangroves, sea grasses, coral and oyster reefs. The paper describes a number of innovative projects and the lessons learned in their development and implementation. These lessons include the planning, design and construction of projects, their development following implementation, the engagement of local communities and the cost effectiveness of solutions.