Welcome to our interactive bibliography on Nature-based Solutions. Here you can explore publications on the role or use of biodiversity and ecosystems to 1) address impacts from climate change, 2) help store carbon or reduce carbon emissions, and 3) promote ecosystem-health in the context of climate change. Maps show numbers of publications focusing on different habitats, regions, the societal challenge that a nature-based solution is applicable to, and the broad type of NbS under study (NbS approach). Read the details of scope and methods used to build the bibliography.

Societal challenge  

Climate change adaptation: articles on NbS for socioeconomic and ecosystem adaptation to the short term hazards or long term impacts of climate change. Climate change mitigation: articles on NbS for carbon sequestration and storage. Disaster-risk reduction: articles on NbS to reduce the impacts of natural and climate change related disasters. Ecosystem health: articles on NbS to enhance the resilience or adaptive capacity of ecosystems, or to provide biodiversity co-benefits, explicitly in the context of climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction, or carbon sequestration. Food and water security: articles on NbS to address food and water security, or to provide food and water security co-benefits, explicitly in the context of climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction, or carbon sequestration. Human well-being: articles on NbS to human well-being (e.g. equity, poverty reduction, physical or mental health) or socio-economic development (e.g. economic impacts on specific sectors), or to provide wellbeing co-benefits, explicitly in the context of climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction, or carbon sequestration.

NbS approach  

Articles tagged with these approach terms either explicitly used the term, or described an intervention falling under the definition of the term. Nature-based Solutions in general: articles explicitly using the terms 'nature-based solutions', 'natural solutions', or ‘nature-based approaches’. Describing actions that work with and enhance habitats to help address societal challenges, NbS is a umbrella term which encompasses all of the approaches described below. Area-based approaches: ecosystem protection, including protected areas and their management. Community-based adaptation: a climate change adaptation approach focusing on empowering communities to use their own knowledge and decision-making processes to take action on dealing with the impacts of climate change. Ecosystem-based adaptation: defined by the Convention on Biological Diversity (2009) as “sustainable management, conservation and restoration of ecosystems, as part of an overall adaptation strategy that takes into account the multiple social, economic and cultural co-benefits for local communities”. Ecosystem-based management: integrated, science-based approach to natural resource management aimed at sustaining the health, resilience and diversity of ecosystems while allowing for sustainable use by humans. Ecosystem-based mitigation: sustainable management, conservation and restoration of ecosystems for the purpose of enhancing carbon sequestration and storage. Ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction: sustainable management, conservation and restoration of ecosystems to provide services that reduce disaster risk by mitigating hazards and by increasing livelihood resilience. Ecological engineering: the design of sustainable ecosystems integrating human society and ecosystems for the benefit of both. Ecological restoration: process of assisting the recovery or otherwise enhance the structure and function of an ecosystem that has been impacted by environmental change. Forest-landscape restoration: a planned longterm process aimed at restoring the ecological integrity and enhance human well-being in deforested or degraded landscapes. Infrastructure-related approaches or green infrastructure: a strategically planned network of natural and semi-natural areas with other environmental features designed and managed to deliver ecosystem services in both urban and rural settings. It incorporates green or blue (aquatic) spaces and other physical features in terrestrial (including coastal) and marine areas. Nature-based agricultural systems: includes landscapes in which practices aimed at maintaining or enhancing agricultural yield by working with nature; includes agroforestry, conservation agriculture, permaculture activities, “agricultural and forestry systems”, “silvopasture” and the planting of trees in agricultural areas to reduce soil erosion.

Major habitat type

Publication type

No. of publications