Climate change is increasingly recognized as the driver of biodiversity change. In recent years, the issues related to climate change have left the purely scientific realm and got on the agenda of many international organizations, programmes, conventions and initiatives seeking ways to mitigate and adapt to this phenomenon. Protected areas and biosphere reserves (BRs) in particular, focused as they are on the conservation of ecosystem services and on fostering sustainable regional development, play an important role in developing and implementing mitigation and adaptation measures and policies. This is officially recognized within the framework of the Madrid Action Plan for the BRs, adopted in 2008. It states that “MAB and WNBR bring added value through the integrated approach which is generally absent elsewhere. The role of biosphere reserves is essential to rapidly seek and test solutions to the challenges of climate change as well as monitor the changes as part of a global network. For the Natural Sciences as well as other Programme Sectors of UNESCO, biosphere reserves can be areas for demonstrating adaptation measures for natural and human systems, assisting the development of resilience strategies and practices. Buffer zones and transition areas of biosphere reserves may also be used to test many mitigation tactics and strategies”. Target 24 of the Action Plan envisages using BRs as learning sites for research into, adaptation to and mitigation of climate change effects.