Drawing on information presented throughout this book, this chapter identifies key knowledge gaps relating to climate and climate-change effects on agriculture, forestry, and wetlands. It further points toward research needed to make management of these ecosystems part of a solution, by identifying gaps in the current understanding of biosphere-based adaptation or mitigation strategies. The list presented here is only concerned with climate change — biosphere interactions, and with questions of land use or management where they intersect with this topic. It cannot tackle the much larger subject of “global change,” or strategies for GHG mitigation that are not biosphere based. Further, it focuses on science needed to support economic or policy decision, without making reference to specific market or legislative tools. It also makes no attempt to include knowledge gaps relating to the development of economic or policy mechanisms needed to make biosphere-based GHG mitigation a functional and attractive option. For an introduction to this field, the reader is referred to Chapter 19.