The impacts of climate change on biodiversity loss and its remedial measures using nature based conservation approach: a global perspective| Biodiversity & Conservation | 2023 | Peer Reviewed | Review | https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10531-023-02656-1
The review aims to present the effects of climate change on biodiversity and its remedial measures using Nature based solution (Nbs). At least 40% of the world’s economy, and 80% of the economy of less industrialized nations, is derived directly from biological resources as a function of ecosystem service. Climate change is a key driver for mass extinction, latitudinal and altitudinal shifts of species location, change in species richness and composition, change in phenology, decline in ecosystem services and outbreak of plant and animal disease. The most important notable drivers behind the current loss of biodiversity are habitat modification, overexploitation, climate change, invasive alien species, and chains of extinction. Loss in biodiversity has been attributed primarily to changes in the intensity by which the land and sea are used (34% contribution to losses over the past century) and direct exploitation of species (23%), followed by climate change and pollution (14% each). The impact of climate change is projected to surpass other threats during the twenty-first century both through direct effects and intensifying interactions with other drivers. Under a global warming scenario of 1.5 °C warming, 6% of insects, 8% of plants and 4% of vertebrates are projected to lose over half of their climatically determined geographic range. For global warming of 2 °C, the comparable fractions are 18% of insects, 16% of plants and 8% of vertebrates. Future warming of 3.2 °C above preindustrial levels is projected to lead to loss of more than half of the historical geographic range in 49% of insects, 44% of plants, and 26% of vertebrates. Nature based solutions such as protection of intact ecosystems, managing working lands and restoring native cover are some of the important measures for climate change mitigation and biodiversity protection, although it will be difficult to achieve without the reduction fossil fuel emissions.