Financing Conservation in the Twenty-First Century – Investing in Nature-Based Climate Solutions in Makame Wildlife Management Area| Tarangire: Human-Wildlife Coexistence in a Fragmented Ecosystem | 2022 | Peer Reviewed | Book (chapter) | https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-93604-4_15
Wildlife conservation in Africa has been dominated by protected areas (PAs) that largely excluded the interests of local communities. While this “fortress conservation” has succeeded in securing natural habitat and wildlife populations, it has come at a cost to local communities who forego access to natural resources on which their livelihoods depend and who obtain few direct benefits from the designated PAs. Concomitantly, climate change poses formidable challenges that require urgent attention to meet global climate goals. Combining finance mechanisms primarily intended for climate outcomes with community-based conservation models presents opportunities to integrate nature conservation and climate change mitigation and adaptation while providing direct income to local communities. In this chapter, we present an example of a results-based system of payments for ecosystem services – the purchase of verified emission reductions for use as carbon offsets. We outline the key steps for planning and implementing the REDD+ project of Makame Wildlife Management Area, and emphasize the monitoring of key parameters associated with climate, community and wildlife benefits. Our case study depicts an innovative, nature-based solution to climate change, wildlife conservation, and rural livelihoods for an African savannah rangeland where conventional approaches are insufficient to meet the costs of conservation.