van der Jagt et al (2019) Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions
To build a sustainable world, transformation across many sectors is required and technology is thought to play a major enabling role. This has prompted the development of the Technological Innovation System framework, which focuses on the relationship between the social and technological systems. In this paper, a complementary Nature-based Innovation System framework is explored, which facilitates the study of innovation from an integrated social, technical, and ecological systems perspective. When comparing the two frameworks, three factors were found to be more central to nature-based innovation than technological innovation, specifically: place-based dynamics (nature-based innovation is location-specific), agency (the role of individuals and organisations for inspiring and encouraging action), and governance structure (distributing power across a range of stakeholders). Market formation, on the other hand, is currently more central in technological innovation. However, this is changing quickly: creating viable markets for natural capital is central to successful implementation of NbS on a large scale. Direct article link.