NBSI slider image Our vision is to help increase human well-being by working with and enhancing nature
slider image “Healthy ecosystems underpin healthy, resilient nations and communities, and we cannot achieve our Sustainable Development Goals without safeguarding nature” Achim Steiner, UNDP (2017)
slider image Land-based conservation and restoration has the potential to provide over 30% of the cost-effective climate change mitigation needed between now and 2030 Learn more
slider image Most nations agree that nature is a major ally in the fight against climate change but policy ambition must be matched by robust targets Learn more
slider image Natural coastal wetlands prevented $625M property damage during Hurricane Sandy in NE USA in 2012 Learn more
slider image Loss of coral reefs would double damage from coastal flooding and triple destruction by storms Learn more
slider image Nature-based climate solutions must be grounded in sound biodiversity science Learn more
slider image Ecosystem and biodiversity scientists must work closely with policymakers to identify meaningful climate adaptation targets that benefit both people and ecosystems Learn more


Nature-based Solutions are actions that work with and enhance natural habitats to help address societal challenges, including helping people adapt to the effects of change and disasters. Key examples include the restoration of coastal ecosystems to protect communities from storm surges and erosion, agroforestry to stabilise crop yields in drier climates, and forest restoration to regulate water supplies and protect against flooding and landslides. Nature-based Solutions to climate change, if grounded in sound biodiversity science, can be low cost and low risk whilst also protecting the ecosystems on which we depend.

Nature-based Solutions Initiative

This is an Oxford University programme of research, policy advice and education aimed at understanding the potential of Nature-based Solutions (NbS) to address global challenges and, where appropriate, increasing their sustainable implementation through the application of science. We apply leading-edge thinking from across multiple disciplines to (1) shore up the scholarship around the socioeconomic and ecological effectiveness of NbS in a warming world, and (2) bring about a step-change in how NbS are financed and governed. We collate scientific information on nature-based climate change adaptation and makes this more accessible to decision-makers through this platform. We also assess the role of NbS in climate change policy, with a focus on the plans of all signatories of the Paris Agreement. The goal is to facilitate the process by which climate pledges are revised and to scale up ambition for nature. This platform will continue to grow with more studies, policy guidance and functionalities to help decision-makers rapidly access and locate the most relevant evidence. We welcome feedback.

Scientific Evidence

We consolidate and review scientific studies of the role of nature in helping people adapt to the hazardous effects of climate change. Our searchable bibliography brings together papers on economic, social, and environmental dimensions of Nature-based Solutions to climate change impacts, but also includes studies of the carbon capture potential of natural systems, policy papers and articles highlighting research gaps. Meanwhile, our evidence tool on NbS effectiveness categorizes studies investigating links between interventions and climate impacts, based on a robust systematic review.

View Bibliography Evidence Tool

Global Policy

We collate information on the extent of global commitment to Nature-based Solutions in climate change policy, with an initial focus on the pledges of all signatories to the UNFCCC Paris Agreement. We invite you to explore our data, both in a pan-global analysis and by individual country, to assess how nations are planning to adapt to climate change and to review and compare stated vulnerabilities, actions and targets. Our aim is to facilitate the revision of climate pledges, with the long term goal of increasing ambition for science-based targets for Nature-based Solutions.

View Policy